Git is a distributed version control system, which means you can work locallybut you can also share or “push” your changes to other servers.Before you can push your changes to a GitLab serveryou need a secure communication channel for sharing information.
- Git Add Public Key Windows
- Gitlab Ssh Key Get
- Gitlab Test Ssh Key
- Setup Ssh Keys Gitlab
- Git Generate New Ssh Key Windows
- Gitlab Ssh Keys Windows
In order to make Git aware of your SSH key, you need to add the public portion of the key to GitLab. When you add the SSH key to GitLab, it will put the key for the Git user in the authorizedkeys file on the GitLab server. Whenever you will execute a Git command that will communicate with GitLab, it will check the permissions you have against your own user account. Windows Generate Ssh Key Gitlab; Windows Generate Ssh Key Git Files; Generate Ssh Key Windows; An SSH key is an access credential for the SSH (secure shell) network protocol. This authenticated and encrypted secure network protocol is used for remote communication between machines on an unsecured open network. SSH is used for remote file.
The SSH protocol provides this security and allows you to authenticate to theGitLab remote server without supplying your username or password each time.
For a more detailed explanation of how the SSH protocol works, readthis nice tutorial by DigitalOcean.
The only requirement is to have the OpenSSH client installed on your system. Thiscomes pre-installed on GNU/Linux and macOS, but not on Windows.
Depending on your Windows version, there are different methods to work withSSH keys.
Windows 10: Windows Subsystem for Linux
Starting with Windows 10, you caninstall the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)where you can run Linux distributions directly on Windows, without the overheadof a virtual machine. Once installed and set up, you’ll have the Git and SSHclients at your disposal.
Windows 10, 8.1, and 7: Git for Windows
The easiest way to install Git and the SSH client on Windows 8.1 and Windows 7is Git for Windows. It provides a Bashemulation (Git Bash) used for running Git from the command line and the
ssh-keygen command that is useful to create SSH keys as you’ll learn below.
NOTE: Alternative tools:Although not explored in this page, you can use some alternative tools.Cygwin is a large collection of GNU and open sourcetools which provide functionality similar to a Unix distribution.PuttyGenprovides a graphical user interface to create SSH keys.
Types of SSH keys and which to choose
GitLab supports RSA, DSA, ECDSA, and ED25519 keys. Their difference lies onthe signing algorithm, and some of them have advantages over the others. Formore information, you can read thisnice article on ArchWiki.We’ll focus on ED25519 and RSA and here.
NOTE: Note:As an admin, you can restrict which keys should be permitted and their minimum length.By default, all keys are permitted, which is also the case forGitLab.com.
ED25519 SSH keys
Following best practices,you should always favor ED25519 SSH keys, since theyare more secure and have better performance over the other types.
ED25519 SSH keys were introduced in OpenSSH 6.5,so any modern OS should include the option to create them.If for any reason your OS or the GitLab instance you interact with doesn’tsupport ED25519, you can fallback to RSA.
NOTE: Note:Omnibus does not ship with OpenSSH, so it uses the version on your GitLab server. If usingOmnibus, ensure the version of OpenSSH installed is version 6.5 or newer if you want to use ED25519 SSH keys.
Git Add Public Key Windows
RSA SSH keys
RSA keys are the most common ones and therefore the most compatible withservers that may have an old OpenSSH version. Use them if the GitLab serverdoesn’t work with ED25519 keys.
The minimum key size is 1024 bits, defaulting to 2048. If you wish to generate astronger RSA key pair, specify the
-b flag with a higher bit value than thedefault.
The old, default password encoding for SSH private keys isinsecure;it’s only a single round of an MD5 hash. Since OpenSSH version 6.5, you shoulduse the
-o option to
ssh-keygen to encode your private key in a new, moresecure format.
If you already have an RSA SSH key pair to use with GitLab, consider upgrading itto use the more secure password encryption format by using the following commandon the private key:
Generating a new SSH key pair
Before creating an SSH key pair, make sure to understand thedifferent types of keys.
To create a new SSH key pair:
- Open a terminal on Linux or macOS, or Git Bash / WSL on Windows.
- Generate a new ED25519 SSH key pair:
ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -C '[email protected]'Or, if you want to use RSA:
ssh-keygen -o -t rsa -b 4096 -C '[email protected]'The
-Cflag adds a comment in the key in case you have multiple of themand want to tell which is which. It is optional.
- Next, you will be prompted to input a file path to save your SSH key pair to.If you don’t already have an SSH key pair and aren’t generating a deploy key,use the suggested path by pressingEnter. Using the suggested path will normally allow your SSH clientto automatically use the SSH key pair with no additional configuration.If you already have an SSH key pair with the suggested file path, you will needto input a new file path and declare what hostthis SSH key pair will be used for in your
- Once the path is decided, you will be prompted to input a password tosecure your new SSH key pair. It’s a best practice to use a password,but it’s not required and you can skip creating it by pressingEnter twice.If, in any case, you want to add or change the password of your SSH key pair,you can use the
ssh-keygen -p -o -f <keyname>
Now, it’s time to add the newly created public key to your GitLab account.
Adding an SSH key to your GitLab account
- Copy your public SSH key to the clipboard by using one of the commands belowdepending on your Operating System:macOS:
pbcopy < ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pubWSL / GNU/Linux (requires the xclip package):
xclip -sel clip < ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pubGit Bash on Windows:
cat ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub clipYou can also open the key in a graphical editor and copy it from there,but be careful not to accidentally change anything.NOTE: Note:If you opted to create an RSA key, the name might differ.
- Add your public SSH key to your GitLab account by:
- Clicking your avatar in the upper right corner and selecting Settings.
- Navigating to SSH Keys and pasting your public key in the Key field. If you:
- Created the key with a comment, this will appear in the Title field.
- Created the key without a comment, give your key an identifiable title like Work Laptop or Home Workstation.
- Click the Add key button.
ssh-rsa) and ending with your email.
Testing that everything is set up correctly
To test whether your SSH key was added correctly, run the following command inyour terminal (replacing
gitlab.com with your GitLab’s instance domain):
The first time you connect to GitLab via SSH, you will be asked to verify theauthenticity of the GitLab host you are connecting to.For example, when connecting to GitLab.com, answer
yes to add GitLab.com tothe list of trusted hosts:
NOTE: Note:For GitLab.com, consult theSSH host keys fingerprints,to make sure you’re connecting to the correct server.
Once added to the list of known hosts, you won’t be asked to validate theauthenticity of GitLab’s host again. Run the above command once more, andyou should only receive a Welcome to GitLab,
If the welcome message doesn’t appear, run SSH’s verbose mode by replacing
-vvvT to understand where the error is.
Working with non-default SSH key pair paths
If you used a non-default file path for your GitLab SSH key pair,you must configure your SSH client to find your GitLab private SSH keyfor connections to GitLab.
Open a terminal and use the following commands(replacing
other_id_rsa with your private SSH key):
To retain these settings, you’ll need to save them to a configuration file.For OpenSSH clients this is configured in the
~/.ssh/config file. In thisfile you can set up configurations for multiple hosts, like GitLab.com, yourown GitLab instance, GitHub, Bitbucket, etc.
Gitlab Ssh Key Get
Below are two example host configurations using their own SSH key:
Public SSH keys need to be unique to GitLab, as they will bind to your account.Your SSH key is the only identifier you’ll have when pushing code via SSH,that’s why it needs to uniquely map to a single user.
Per-repository SSH keys
If you want to use different keys depending on the repository you are workingon, you can issue the following command while inside your repository:
This will not use the SSH Agent and requires at least Git 2.10.
Per-repository deploy keys
Deploy keys allow read-only or read-write (if enabled) access to one ormultiple projects with a single SSH key pair.
This is really useful for cloning repositories to your ContinuousIntegration (CI) server. By using deploy keys, you don’t have to set up adummy user account.
If you are a project maintainer or owner, you can add a deploy key in theproject’s Settings > Repository page by expanding theDeploy Keys section. Specify a title for the newdeploy key and paste a public SSH key. After this, the machine that usesthe corresponding private SSH key has read-only or read-write (if enabled)access to the project.
You can’t add the same deploy key twice using the form.If you want to add the same key to another project, please enable it in thelist that says ‘Deploy keys from projects available to you’. All the deploykeys of all the projects you have access to are available. This projectaccess can happen through being a direct member of the project, or througha group.
Deploy keys can be shared between projects, you just need to add them to eachproject.
Gitlab Test Ssh Key
Global shared deploy keys
Global Shared Deploy keys allow read-only or read-write (if enabled) access tobe configured on any repository in the entire GitLab installation.
This is really useful for integrating repositories to secured, shared ContinuousIntegration (CI) services or other shared services.GitLab administrators can set up the Global Shared Deploy key in GitLab andadd the private key to any shared systems. Individual repositories opt intoexposing their repository using these keys when a project maintainers (or higher)authorizes a Global Shared Deploy key to be used with their project.
Global Shared Keys can provide greater security compared to Per-Project DeployKeys since an administrator of the target integrated system is the only onewho needs to know and configure the private key.
GitLab administrators set up Global Deploy keys in the Admin area under thesection Deploy Keys. Ensure keys have a meaningful title as that will bethe primary way for project maintainers and owners to identify the correct GlobalDeploy key to add. For instance, if the key gives access to a SaaS CI instance,use the name of that service in the key name if that is all it is used for.When creating Global Shared Deploy keys, give some thought to the granularityof keys – they could be of very narrow usage such as just a specific service orof broader usage for something like “Anywhere you need to give read access toyour repository”.
Once a GitLab administrator adds the Global Deployment key, project maintainersand owners can add it in project’s Settings > Repository page by expanding theDeploy Keys section and clicking Enable next to the appropriate key listedunder Public deploy keys available to any project.
Setup Ssh Keys Gitlab
NOTE: Note:The heading Public deploy keys available to any project only appearsif there is at least one Global Deploy Key configured.
CAUTION: Warning:Defining Global Deploy Keys does not expose any given repository viathe key until that repository adds the Global Deploy Key to their project.In this way the Global Deploy Keys enable access by other systems, but donot implicitly give any access just by setting them up.
If you are using EGit, you can add your SSH key to Eclipse.
Git Generate New Ssh Key Windows
SSH on the GitLab server
GitLab integrates with the system-installed SSH daemon, designating a user(typically named
git) through which all access requests are handled. Usersconnecting to the GitLab server over SSH are identified by their SSH key insteadof their username.
SSH client operations performed on the GitLab server wil be executed as thisuser. Although it is possible to modify the SSH configuration for this user to,e.g., provide a private SSH key to authenticate these requests by, this practiceis not supported and is strongly discouraged as it presents significantsecurity risks.
The GitLab check process includes a check for this condition, and will direct youto this section if your server is configured like this, e.g.:
Remove the custom configuration as soon as you’re able to. These customizationsare explicitly not supported and may stop working at any time.
If on Git clone you are prompted for a password like
[email protected]'s password:something is wrong with your SSH setup.
Gitlab Ssh Keys Windows
- Ensure that you generated your SSH key pair correctly and added the public SSHkey to your GitLab profile
- Try manually registering your private SSH key using
ssh-agentas documentedearlier in this document
- Try to debug the connection by running
ssh -Tv [email protected](replacing
example.comwith your GitLab domain)